It’s one thing to teach a lesson with specific learning outcome; another thing entirely is whether or not students learned it. Every learning outcome in your course should have accompanying assessments, both summative and formative. CTL consultants will help you create assessments aligned to your outcomes.
Summative assessments like homework problems and exam questions allow a student to demonstrate their (incomplete) knowledge. Formative assessments provide students with immediate feedback on their current level of understanding and also how to improve. Fortunately, a good learning outcome can easily be adapted into an assessment. Here are some examples:
|Learning outcome: represent molecules using their VSPER, electron-dot, chemical formula, and chemical names and translate between these representations|
|Formative assessment||(in class) In groups of 3, use your whiteboard to draw VSPER representations of CH4 and ethanol.|
|Summative assessment||(exam question) Draw the VSPER and electron-dot representations of these substances: phosphorous pentachloride, NO–2|
|Learning outcome: “close read” original documents to identify the author’s thesis and supporting evidence|
|Formative assessment||(peer instruction with clickers) According to Augustine, which do you think was the most significant event in his conversion to Christianity? Be prepared to defend your choice with evidence from the readings. (Question by Heidi Keller-Lapp, UC San Diego)
|Summative assessment||(exam question) In Confessiones Books 1 – 4, Augustine recounts his childhood and young adulthood leading up to his conversion to Christianity. What do you think were the most significant events and how did they impact his actions?|
|Learning outcome: label common structures in micrographs of plant and animal cells|
|Formative assessment||(in-class worksheet) Label the cristae, inner and outer membrane, and mitochondrial matrix in this micrograph:
|Summative assessment||(exam question) Label the structures identified in this micrograph:
|Learning outcome: make a diagnosis from symptoms presented by a patient and propose possible treatments with justifications|
|Formative assessment||(peer instruction with clickers and hand-out) A 70-year-old female is admitted to your unit with shortness of breath. Crackles are heard in all lung fields and her respiratory rate is labored at 36. Her skin in cool to the touch and she is diaphoretic. She has an arterial line and a Swan–Ganz catheter. The initial parameters are as given on the hand-out. (Question by Irene Knokh, University of Michigan.)
What would be the best intervention to address the patient’s respiratory status?
|Summative assessment||(exam question) A 70-year-old female is admitted to your unit with shortness of breath. Crackles are heard in all lung fields and her respiratory rate is labored at 36. Her skin in cool to the touch and she is diaphoretic. She has an arterial line and a Swan–Ganz catheter. The initial parameters are as given [as follows].
What is your diagnosis of the patient? What treatment do you recommend? Be sure to provide evidence and justify your diagnosis and treatment.
AX2E3-2D by Benjah-bmm27 (Own work) [Public domain] via Wikimedia Commons
St Augustine Reading the Epistle of St Paul byBenozzo Gozzoli [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Light Micrograph of a Meissner Corpuscle by OpenStax Anatomy and PhysiologyOpenStax CC-BY-4.0 via Wikimedia Commons
Lt. Patricia Salazar examines a patient’s eyes by U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brian A. Goyak [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons