With a learning outcome to aim for and a way to assess how much students are learning, you’re ready to select an instructional strategy tailored to supporting students achieving that outcome. CTL consultants can help you find and implement evidence-based instructional strategies.
There are times when a short lecture is the right tool, to share your expertise and model expert-like habits of thinking. The evidence is clear, though, that in effective, active classes, more of your students will achieve higher levels of success. The nature of the learning outcome and the assessments often suggests how to teach the lesson.
CTL consultants are ready to help you select strategies to support your lesson. Here are some examples:
|Learning outcome: represent molecules using their VSPER, electron-dot, chemical formula, and chemical names and translate between these representations|
|Formative assessment||(in class) In groups of 3, use your whiteboard to draw VSPER representations of CH4 and ethanol.|
|Summative assessment||(exam question) Draw the VSPER and electron-dot representations of these substances: phosphorous pentachloride, NO–2|
|Instructional strategy: Demonstrate how to draw VSPER representation – textbook shows only final drawing, not evolution/steps. Get students into groups of 3 around a portable whiteboard. Get them to draw CH4, then check with neighboring group. Report out and confirm representation. Students work together on ethanol.|
|Learning outcome: “close read” original documents to identify the author’s thesis and supporting evidence|
|Formative assessment||(peer instruction with clickers) According to Augustine, which do you think was the most significant event in his conversion to Christianity? Be prepared to defend your choice with evidence from the readings. (Question by Heidi Keller-Lapp, UC San Diego)
|Summative assessment||(exam question) In Confessiones Books 1 – 4, Augustine recounts his childhood and young adulthood leading up to his conversion to Christianity. What do you think were the most significant events and how did they impact his actions?|
|Instructional strategy: Jigsaw activity: In groups of four, students look at one of Confessiones Books 1, 2, 3, 4 to find passages related to significant events. When each group has found passages, rearrange students into groups of four with one representative of each Book 1, 2, 3, 4. Students take turns recounting significant event in their Book. Initiate class-wide discussion with peer instruction question.|
|Learning outcome: label common structures in micrographs of plant and animal cells|
|Formative assessment||(in-class worksheet) Label the cristae, inner and outer membrane, and mitochondrial matrix in this micrograph:
|Summative assessment||(exam question) Label the structures identified in this micrograph:
|Instructional strategy: Each student receives worksheet with series of increasingly more complex micrograph labelling tasks. Guide students through tasks, stopping to peer evaluate and confirm structures before moving on to next task:
|Learning outcome: make a diagnosis from symptoms presented by a patient and propose possible treatments with justifications|
|Formative assessment||(peer instruction with clickers and hand-out) A 70-year-old female is admitted to your unit with shortness of breath. Crackles are heard in all lung fields and her respiratory rate is labored at 36. Her skin in cool to the touch and she is diaphoretic. She has an arterial line and a Swan–Ganz catheter. The initial parameters are as given on the hand-out. (Question by Irene Knokh, University of Michigan.)
What would be the best intervention to address the patient’s respiratory status?
|Summative assessment||(exam question) A 70-year-old female is admitted to your unit with shortness of breath. Crackles are heard in all lung fields and her respiratory rate is labored at 36. Her skin in cool to the touch and she is diaphoretic. She has an arterial line and a Swan–Ganz catheter. The initial parameters are as given [as follows].
What is your diagnosis of the patient? What treatment do you recommend? Be sure to provide evidence and justify your diagnosis and treatment.
|Instructional strategy: Guide students through video from Nursing Simulation Scenario Library:
AX2E3-2D by Benjah-bmm27 (Own work) [Public domain] via Wikimedia Commons
St Augustine Reading the Epistle of St Paul byBenozzo Gozzoli [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Light Micrograph of a Meissner Corpuscle by OpenStax Anatomy and PhysiologyOpenStax CC-BY-4.0 via Wikimedia Commons
Lt. Patricia Salazar examines a patient’s eyes by U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brian A. Goyak [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons